Parenting requires promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. It refers to the activity of raising a child rather than the biological relationship. There are several models of parenting, development pscychologist Diana Baumrind identified 3 main parenting styles in early child development:
  1. Authoritative
  2. Authoritarian
  3. Permissive
Maccoby and Martin expanded the styles to four: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. These four styles of parenting involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness on the one hand and demand and control on the other. There is no single or definitive model of parenting. What may be right for one family or one child may not be suitable for another. With authoritative and permissive (indulgent) parenting on opposite sides of the spectrum, most conventional and modern models of parenting fall somewhere in between.
  1. Slow parenting – Encourages parents to plan and organise less for their children, instead allowing them to enjoy their childhood and explore the world at their own pace.
  2. Nurturant parent model – A family model where children are expected to explore their surroundings with protection from their parents.
  3. Strict father model – An authoritarian approach, places a strong value on discipline as a means to survive and thrive in a harsh world.
  4. Attachment parenting – Seeks to create strong emotional bonds, avoiding physical punishment and accomplishing discipline through interactions recognizing a child's emotional needs all while focusing on holistic understanding of the child.
Parenting practices in emerging adulthood: Development of a new measure. Source: Wikipedia